Chapter: 29

The Power of an Individual

“A government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it . . . I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as my government which is the slave’s government also.”—Henry David Thoreau

Lone individuals have the power to accomplish good for humanity, and the power to resist evil.

Two individuals known personally to the author of this chapter illustrate the power to accomplish good. Dr. John McDonald brought paramedics and medical air transport service to Santa Rosa, California and a wider area that  had not been served previously by paramedics or medical air transport.

Betty Kwan Chinn has helped thousands of homeless people in the Eureka, California area by alleviating the harshness and deprivation of their existence. She has succeeded in helping many of the homeless to find homes and employment, and return to productive life in society. She did it with no involvement of local or national government. She never asked anyone for money to help her. People were inspired by what she was doing and gathered round to help her.

Scientists working alone have benefited mankind by discoveries that are the basis for the remarkable advances in living standards, medical science, public health, and speed of communication since the end of the 18th century.

Jaime Escalante taught calculus to young people no one thought could learn it. Their success in mathematics started many out on a path to a far better life than they would have had otherwise.

Dissidents in the former Soviet Union courageously defied an all-powerful, tyrannical and brutal dictatorship in order to assert their demands for civil liberties. Their principled opposition to the dictatorship was a significant factor in bringing it down.

Thomas Paine taught the world that humans did not need kings to rule them, and would be far better off without kings.

Henry David Thoreau taught that individuals should refuse to cooperate with the commands of the majority, via political democracy, if those demands conflicted with the individual’s conscience and with morality. Thoreau’s teaching influenced other individuals to advocate a strategy of passive resistance to tyranny, with momentous and beneficial consequences for hundreds of millions of people around the world.

Virtually every great human achievement in science and the arts has been the product of a lone individual, or of individuals working independently of each other. This phenomenon–individual creativity–is part of the subject matter of Andrew Galambos’ lectures on the nature and protection of property in ideas, to be presented later in this book.

The individuals discussed in this chapter exemplify the influential power of a lone individual. Others whose achievements illustrate the power of an individual for good include, but are not limited to Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865), Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896), Wilbur Wright (1867-1912), and Émile Zola (1840-1902).

The musical genius in the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach has inspired and influenced great composers and performers since the revival of interest in Bach’s music began in the early 19th century. Semmelweis was a pioneer in discovering the necessity of antiseptic cleanliness in the practice of medicine. Stowe’s book Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) was the most influential work of literature in arousing anti-slavery sentiment in the United States. Wilbur Wright discovered that the shape of the wings of birds that soared was the key to heavier than air flight by an airplane. 1 Zola risked his freedom to expose the fraudulent conduct of the government of France in hiding the innocence of a military officer wrongfully convicted of treason.

Dr. John L. McDonald

John L. McDonald, M. D. (1937-2000) acted as both a physician and entrepreneur to elevate the quality of health care in and around Santa Rosa, California, the community in which he lived and practiced medicine.

John L. McDonald, M.D.

John L. McDonald, M.D.

In 1966, Dr. McDonald and his family moved to California, ultimately settling in the city of Santa Rosa. Dr. McDonald opened a medical practice adjacent to Santa Rosa Memorial Hospital. In 1971 John McDonald organized and established an emergency medical service that operated 24 hours each day, seven days a week at Memorial Hospital. Previously Santa Rosa had no round the clock, every day emergency medical service. In addition to being Chief of Emergency Service at the hospital, Dr. McDonald worked regularly at the hospital as an emergency physician.

By the late 1960s it had been well established that paramedics are essential to saving lives and mitigating adverse medical results to people whose life and health become threatened due to sudden sickness or injury. By 1970 paramedic training programs had been established in Southern California and elsewhere around America. A popular television series that started in January 1972 dramatized paramedic emergency services. 2

In or about 1973 Dr. McDonald created the Santa Rosa area’s first paramedic program. Dr. McDonald arranged for individuals employed by a local ambulance company to receive paramedic training in Southern California. Due to political considerations, in 1975 Dr. McDonald was charged by the state of California with aiding and abetting the unauthorized practice of medicine by using paramedics not certified by the county of Sonoma. Dr. McDonald was cleared of those charges and vindicated by the decision of a state Hearing Officer who presided over the state’s prosecution of Dr. McDonald.

Air transport is critical to saving lives and minimizing disability of people who become sick or are injured in a remote location. In such locations ground transportation by ambulance is too slow to save lives or prevent adverse outcomes for sick and injured people. In 1987 Dr. McDonald founded Redwood Empire Air Care Helicopter (REACH), a medical air transport service. Using his own funds and credit Dr. McDonald purchased a helicopter for REACH and fitted it out for medical air transport. That was a huge financial commitment and a personal financial risk for Dr. McDonald as the cost of the helicopter amounted to  $600,000 , or roughly $1,270,000 in constant 2016 dollars. 3

Dr. McDonald with REACH helicopter and two crew members

Dr. McDonald with REACH helicopter and two crew members

REACH recruited the necessary staff to provide high quality medical care during transport of patients. Without such care in transit, the actual transportation would be futile. Sick and injured patients are provided high quality medical care under the supervision of physicians and nurses who are expert in emergency medicine. REACH staff includes aircraft pilots, paramedics, critical care nurses and personnel who support the caregivers and the equipment. Training for staff of REACH has been done at Santa Rosa under programs first designed and organized by Dr. John McDonald.

REACH grew under the leadership of Dr. McDonald and two of his sons, Daniel and Patrick McDonald who worked in REACH for nearly twenty-five years following the inception of the service.

Under the McDonalds, REACH air medical transport service was expanded to include fixed wing aircraft for transferring sick and injured people to sophisticated hospitals in the San Francisco Bay area when hospitals in smaller communities were not equipped or staffed to provide highly specialized care available only in a large metropolitan area.

REACH fixed wing aircraft.

REACH fixed wing aircraft.

Throughout its area of service REACH is recognized as an indispensable component of emergency response services operated by cities and counties, including the 911 emergency telephone dispatch service and local fire and police departments.

During the administration of REACH by John, Patrick, and Daniel McDonald, the medical air transport service was extended hundreds of miles to the north, east, and south of Santa Rosa.

All this was accomplished due to the impetus of the entrepreneurial activity and motivation of Dr. John McDonald to provide the highest quality emergency medical care. REACH was established and grew, without any assistance from the state of California, and at times in spite of impediments thrown up by the state.

In 2012 REACH became affiliated with a larger medical air transport organization in order to secure the availability of financial and logistic support that would enable REACH to continue expanding its services throughout California and Oregon. That organization, including REACH, as of 2016 operated a fleet of more than 200 helicopters and airplanes from 180 bases in 27 states. 4

Betty Kwan Chinn

Betty Kwan Chinn was born in Guangdong, China in or about 1958. As a very young woman she made her way to America, and then to Eureka, California. There, since 1990 she has helped thousands of homeless individuals by providing direct responses to immediate needs and helping the destitute achieve the dignity needed to return to society as contributing members.

Betty Kwan was one of twelve siblings. Because her parents had attended universities in America and England, the communists considered the entire family to be enemies of the workers and peasants. Consequently, Betty saw her mother tortured and her brother and his pregnant wife executed. A toddler sister died in her arms. Her father fled for his life. For the next four years Betty was a homeless child living in a garbage dump.

Eventually Betty and some of her siblings were able to escape by walking one thousand miles to the South China Sea near Macau, a perilous journey that took half a year. From Macau they swam and floated by hanging on to a log raft to cross the sea to Hong Kong somehow avoiding Chinese Red Guards looking to shoot people attempting to escape from China. The sea was full of the bodies of people who had died while trying to get to Hong Kong. Arriving at Hong Kong, they were reunited with their father who had been going to the seashore almost daily for several years hoping to find his family there.

Because of the trauma she had experienced, Betty’s hair turned white, and she was mute for two years. Betty arrived in America having had very little schooling and knowing no English. Eventually, she married Leung Chinn, a professor of physics at Humboldt State University in Arcata, Humboldt County, California. Together they raised two sons. Betty learned to read and write English with her sons. She volunteered as a teacher’s assistant in her sons’ elementary school.

Betty Kwan Chinn

Betty Kwan Chinn

As a classroom assistant, Betty found herself especially drawn to those children who needed special attention because they were living on the streets or in cars, didn’t have clean clothes, or didn’t know how they would receive their next meal. In or about 1990 Betty started providing food, clothing, and school supplies to one or two families. Gradually over the years Betty helped more and more people until nearly 500 people each day were being fed.  In 2013, after Betty had earned the respect of many community leaders, the Betty Kwan Chinn Homeless Foundation was established and a Day Center for the homeless was opened.

The people Betty helps are down on their luck, and have nothing because of making wrong decisions, or losing a job, or they are runaway teenagers who feel they just don’t fit in anywhere. They live on the streets because they don’t know how to get off.

homelessman-640x427

Homeless person

Betty arises at 3:00 a.m. each morning in order to prepare for a busy day that starts at 5:00 a.m. when she drives her van to transport homeless students to residences where they can take a shower.  Originally showers were taken at the residences of the formerly homeless who offered  their homes for showering. Betty received a $25,000 award for her work. She used the money plus funds raised in the community to build showers for the homeless in a structure attached to the St. Vincent De Paul building in Eureka.

After taking people to shower, Betty drives her van to where homeless people gather and distributes hot coffee and doughnuts. For a long time she prepared breakfast and dinner each day to feed the numerous homeless people who have come to rely on her. Originally she prepared meals at the kitchen of a church in Eureka. When the California state Department of Health objected, friends of Betty raised the money for her to buy a catering truck to comply with Health Department regulations. Later, food preparation for the homeless was undertaken mostly by volunteers who want to help Betty in her work.

In addition to food, Betty brings the homeless clothing, toiletries, makes medical referrals, and helps people obtain IDs so that they can apply for work and obtain access to resources.

Betty never asks anyone to donate money to help her. Initially, she covered costs completely from her own meager salary and with her husband’s financial support. Over time, individuals in the community have helped Betty with gifts of money, food, clothing, toys, backpacks, school supplies, and with food preparation, sorting of clothing, medical and dental care, transportation, and more. To organize and administer the community support, Betty created the Betty Kwan Chinn Homeless Foundation. 5

The mission statement of the Foundation is

To honor all of humanity by providing direct responses to immediate needs and helping the destitute achieve the dignity needed to return to society as contributing members.

When one of the homeless Betty serves is ready to come off the streets, Betty is there with her phone card in case they want to call home, a one way bus ticket home, and some Denny’s restaurant meal certificates so that the person can buy food on the journey to family back home.

On especially cold winter nights, Betty is out most of the night with the heater going in her van, letting people living in the bushes come inside for a while to warm up from the freezing cold.

November 19, 2014, was forecast to be the beginning of several days of intense rain, with dire flooding throughout the Humboldt county area. Betty knew that many of the homeless people she cared for lived in low lying wetland areas that would most likely end up flooding. She went to each of the camps, and at each camp, the group decided who would stay and watch over the camp, and who needed to go to higher ground with Betty. When Betty was finished, she had 134 people that needed a place to stay.

At 5:00 a.m., Betty made two phone calls to former homeless people that she had helped get housing and jobs two years prior. She told them that she needed help, that she had a lot of people that needed housing during the storms, and she had nowhere to put them. They told Betty that they would see what they could do. By 2:00 p.m. they had found a total of 51 host families, enough to fill the need for all 134 people.

As Betty and others delivered people to homes, each person was told that they had to follow the host’s rules. She told the hosts that if at any point it wasn’t working, they could call her and she would come pick the people up. Betty offered to help the host families with extra food and money for utilities. St. Bernard’s Catholic school in Eureka had organized a canned food drive for Betty; the canned food they collected was delivered to her during this time, just when she needed it most.

While Betty checked on her clients, many of whom have mental illness or medical needs, she noticed that the personalities and physical appearance of many of them had changed a lot—and for the better—due to staying in a stable place. Most of these people had never previously lived a normal life, in a clean house. They had had no guidance in the past, growing up in very dysfunctional families.

The host families were also teaching them how to budget their money so they could stay off of the streets. The host families didn’t want to have to send these people back to the streets, so they started looking for ways to help them succeed. Through word of mouth, the host families helped them find a room to rent or share, and taught them how they could manage to pay the rent each month. Within two months 54 out of the 134 people that Betty first moved found permanent housing.

The people Betty helps are usually beyond any social safety net. They are often experiencing mental illness with serious trust issues. They are the poor below the poor, veterans, victims of domestic violence, runaways, and children. They are people that have fallen on hard luck and given up hope of anyone caring. They are people facing enormous obstacles which often render them unable to get services from agencies. They live in the bushes or in their car if they are lucky enough to have one. Betty gives them hope each day, a reason to get up in the morning, knowing they are loved, that someone cares. And over time, Betty often has been able to help lift these individuals up to where they have a chance to move forward in life.

Nicolaus Copernicus

That science is essentially the search for better explanations is illustrated by the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). He was dissatisfied with the then universally accepted idea that earth is the center of the world and that the sun and all other heavenly bodies revolve around the earth. He developed a better explanation, the Copernican heliocentric theory, that the sun is the center of a Solar system.

Copernicus worked alone. His heliocentric theory was an idea so extraordinary and so revolutionary in his lifetime that with good cause he feared to publish his ideas, waiting to do so until the year of his death.

Copernicus became one of the most important figures in the history of science due to the influence of his heliocentric theory. Copernicus stimulated acceleration in the accumulation of scientific knowledge that has continued unabated since his time.

At first Copernicus’ work stood alone, without advocates or defenders. Ultimately his ideas were proven essentially right. The quest to corroborate Copernicus by the tools of science was a prime motivator among some of the world’s leading scientists. In building an edifice of corroboration, piece by piece, Copernicus’ successors built modern science.

The Greek astronomer and mathematician Ptolemy (100 C.E. to 170 C.E.) had published a description of the movements of the sun and planets. Ptolemy’s system posited a fixed and unmoving planet earth as the center of the visible universe of sun, moon, planets and stars. For 1,300 years, until Copernicus, the Ptolemaic system was universally accepted by scholars and by religious authorities.

Copernicus questioned the validity of the Ptolemaic hypothesis. Copernicus was literate in Greek. Reading in the original Greek, Copernicus searched for some corroboration of his insight that the sun rather than the earth was the center of the solar system. He found that idea described in the work of the Greek mathematician and astronomer, Aristarchus of Samos (310 BCE – c. 230 BCE). Aristarchus is the first person known to have advanced the idea that the earth orbited the sun. Copernicus is the second. Aristarchus is remembered in modern times because of the achievement of Copernicus.

As early as 1507, at age 34, Copernicus began thinking about the relationship of the earth, the sun, and the five planets visible to the naked eye; he worked before invention of the telescope.

Before 1514 Copernicus made available to friends a forty page manuscript describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypotheses. Thereafter he continued to gather data and work out his hypothesis. His work was difficult. He had nothing to go on other than naked eye observations and mathematics. He used the most advanced mathematics of the time to calculate the relationship of the orbits of planet earth and the five planets visible with the naked eye. 6

In 1543, Copernicus published a detailed description of his hypothesis and his findings. He said that the earth is a sphere, not flat. He described a triple motion of the earth:

  1. Yearly around the sun
  2. Daily rotation on its own axis
  3. A conical motion of its axis of rotation

Copernicus also described accurately the ordering of the planets that could be observed by the naked eye, without a telescope, that is their distance from the sun, with Mercury nearest to the sun followed by Venus, planet Earth and its satellite the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

The heliocentric model of the solar system from Copernicus’ book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)

The heliocentric model of the solar system from Copernicus’ book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)

In his book Copernicus explains that he is dissatisfied with the generally accepted view that the earth is the fixed and immovable center of the universe. Copernicus explains why a number of astronomical observations falsify this geocentric hypothesis.

Copernicus called his treatise De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres). The book was a sensation among European scientists, although at first few scientists were willing to espouse Copernicus’ theory. The few brave men who did have become famous in the history of science. They include Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), and Johannes Keppler (1571-1630).

Galileo heard of the invention of the telescope in the Netherlands in 1608. He immediately built himself a telescope, and trained it on the moon, stars and planets in the night sky. What he saw was inconsistent with the Ptolemaic hypothesis, and consistent with the theory of Copernicus.

Galileo showing his telescope to the Doge of Venice, painting by Giuseppe Bertini.

Galileo showing his telescope to the Doge of Venice, painting by Giuseppe Bertini.

In 1610 Galileo published his treatise entitled The Starry Messenger (1610) 7 about his observations and conclusions. The Starry Messenger is the first published scientific work based on observations made through a telescope, and is, therefore, a landmark in the history of science.

In 1632 Galileo published a polemical book about the Copernican Theory and Ptolemaic hypothesis, entitled Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632). 8 The Dialogue ridiculed people who believed in the Ptolemaic system. These two publications got Galileo into the trouble with the Roman Catholic Inquisition that resulted in his being convicted of heresy in 1633.

Jacob Bronowski (1908-1974) explained the practical difficulties in convincing the world of the rightness of the Copernican heliocentric theory, as follows:

“. . . [T]he theory of Copernicus is not self-evident. It is not clear how the earth can fly round the sun once a year, or spin on its own axis once a day, and we not fly off. It is not clear how a weight can be dropped from a high tower and fall vertically to a spinning earth. These objections Galileo answered . . .” 9

The Roman Catholic Church maintained that it was heresy to assert the truth of the Copernican theory. Giordano Bruno was convicted of heresy by the Inquisition and burned alive at the stake in 1600 for espousing the heliocentric view, and much more advanced ideas about the cosmos. Galileo was tried for heresy, threatened with death unless he repudiated his writings espousing the heliocentric hypotheses. He did renounce his ideas but was sentenced, nevertheless, to lifetime house arrest. Keppler avoided the fate of Bruno and Galileo because he worked in a Protestant country where the church was less intolerant of scientific views deemed inconsistent with theology.

The scientific and mathematical proof of the Copernican theory had to await the accumulation of corroborating evidence and theory provided by the work of Galileo, Keppler, and Newton. Galileo’s astronomical and terrestrial observations with a telescope falsified Ptolemy’s hypothesis. Keppler’s laws of planetary motion were based on the assumption that planets revolve in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Newton, in his Principia Mathematica (1687), published 144 years after Copernicus’ treatise, proved mathematically that the Copernican theory, as modified by Keppler’s laws of planetary motion, was essentially correct.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) advanced knowledge of the physical sciences by integrating prior knowledge. Newton’s insights created what was and still is called the Newtonian system of the world.

Before Newton there was a great deal of knowledge of the physical universe, but no one had related all this prior knowledge into a comprehensive explanation of what had been discovered theretofore. Newton’s explanation integrated the ideas of Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei on a sun-centered solar system, Johannes Kepler’s ideas about planetary motion, and Rene Descartes’ work in mathematics. Older contemporaries of Newton included several eminent scientists who believed that the sun indubitably was the center of the orbit of planets. That much had been believed as early as the ideas of two astronomers of ancient Greece. In renaissance Europe, Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) had come to the same conclusion, but fear of punishment as a heretic by the Catholic church prevented him from publishing his opinion until he was on his death bed.

Until Newton, no one had been able to prove mathematically that the sun was the center of a system of planets that orbited the sun. Newton came to that conclusion when he was 23 years old, studying at home during the time that Cambridge University was closed due to the plague that was devastating the population of England and Europe.

Newton made important discoveries in optics and the knowledge of the properties of light, but it was his universal law of gravitation and his invention of the calculus 10 that earned him the title of creator of a system of the world, that is a body of systematic knowledge that explained phenomena as diverse as the motion of planets and the movement of ocean tides.

Although Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, published in 1915, explains phenomena that Newton did not address, Newton’s law continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity in most applications.

Edmond Halley

Edmond Halley (1656-1742) merits the eternal gratitude of humanity by bringing to the attention of the world Isaac Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation. Although Newton had first conceived of his great theory in 1665, he did not publish his ideas on astronomy and mathematics until 1684. 11 Newton may never have published these ideas except for the moral and financial encouragement of Halley. Newton trusted Halley, and rightly so, which was not the case with Newton’s relations with many other men of science and mathematics. Without this trust in Halley, it seems probable that Newton would never have published his most important scientific and mathematical work.

According to Newton’s biographers, he was extremely sensitive to criticism and was therefore reluctant to publish anything controversial. Furthermore, another reputable scientist, Robert Hooke, had claimed already in 1686 that he, not Newton, was the discoverer of the universal law of gravitation. At the time, the heliocentric hypothesis of Nicholas Copernicus was still considered unproven mathematically. Newton’s work finally proved Copernicus’ hypothesis mathematically, over 140 years after Copernicus published his hypothesis.

Halley went to see Newton in 1684 to learn whether Newton had developed mathematical proof of Keppler’s laws of planetary motion, at the time a subject of intense interest among learned people in England, and elsewhere in Europe.  Newton provided Halley a relatively short proof in 1684, which was published in the form of a tract sent to the Royal Society. 12

The much longer and detailed version of Newton’s work published in 1687, under the title Principia Mathematica, stimulated an unprecedented outpouring of scientific discovery and an enormous quickening of advances in technology. The work of Newton is credited with constituting the beginning of the modern scientific revolution, the age of science and technology, and of fostering the industrial revolution that began approximately seventy-five years after publication of Principia Mathematica.  However, without Edmond Halley, these developments would not have occurred as early as they did. Consequently, human knowledge of science and technology is further advanced in the 21st century than would have been the case if these monumental discoveries had been discovered only a century or so after Newton and Halley.

Newton’s personal copy of the 1st edition of Principe Mathematica

Newton’s personal copy of the first edition of Principia Mathematica

Halley himself, like Newton, was a man of extraordinary genius in many branches of science. According to Wikipedia, Halley’s fields of knowledge and work included astronomy, cartography, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology, and physics. Halley also did groundbreaking work in what has become known as demographics, and actuarial science, the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions. 13

By reason of his extraordinarily influential work, Principia Mathematica, Newton had become famous among European scientists and mathematicians as soon as the book was published, in 1687. However, the general public was unaware of the nature and momentous consequences of Newton’s ideas.

Edmond Halley went on to apply Newton’s principles by calculating and publishing the orbital period of a comet vis-à-vis the earth. That comet has since been named Halley’s Comet. It was in 1705 that Halley published his predictions about a comet that had been visible to naked eye astronomers in 1456, 1531, 1607, and 1682. Halley calculated that the comet would become visible again from earth in 1758. When Halley’s predication was verified in 1758, it was a truly sensational event that impressed the general public with the potency of the knowledge in Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation. Consequently, enormous public prestige accrued to science and the ideas discovered by scientists.

James Clerk Maxwell

Between 1855 and 1864 James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) integrated prior knowledge about electricity, magnetism, and light. Maxwell concluded, and proved mathematically, that electricity, magnetism and light are manifestations of a single phenomenon, that he called electromagnetism. Maxwell’s great work was done as a young man, between the ages of ages 24 and 33.

Maxwell worked alone. Until he published his work, no one else understood what he was trying to understand and prove.

Maxwell introduced the concept of the electromagnetic field. By understanding the propagation of electromagnetism as a field emitted by active particles, Maxwell could develop his theory that light was an aspect of electromagnetism, and that electromagnetism traveled at the speed of light.

In 1864 he published his discoveries in a paper entitled A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. The paper contained mathematical proof of his theory, in the form of equations, thereafter known as Maxwell’s Equations.

Maxwell’s equations

Maxwell’s equations symbolizing electromagnetic wave propagation

Maxwell’s paper proved that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves, moving at the speed of light, and that light is an undulation of waves in the same medium as electric and magnetic phenomena.

Until Maxwell published his work, no one, not even the most eminent scientists knew that there was such a thing as electromagnetic waves.

In little over 100 years following Maxwell’s publication of his theory, humanity’s way of life altered in a most profound way. Thanks to Maxwell’s discoveries, human communication now occurs at the speed of light. Products and technologies developed in whole or in part on the basis of Maxwell’s work include, but are not limited to radio, television, radar, telephone, radio telescopes, electron microscopes, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many millions of people are employed in the communications industry and in other industries that would not exist but for Maxwell.

Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism have been called the second great unification in physics, after Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation.

Maxwell’s discoveries laid the foundation for such new fields of physical science as special relativity and quantum mechanics.

Maxwell’s contributions to science are considered generally to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. Einstein himself described Maxwell’s work as the “most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.”

Albert Einstein

The discoveries and theories of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) made him (with Maxwell) one of the two most revolutionary and influential individuals in the history of science since Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Like Maxwell, Einstein was a theoretical physicist who came to conclusions and opinions based upon his own analysis of natural phenomena rather than by experimentation. Like Newton, at an early age Einstein had profound insights into the nature of the physical universe and began to formulate his significant theories in his youth. His theories evolved from his pondering about inconsistencies in then accepted ideas of physical science.

Working alone from the time he was fifteen years old Einstein engaged in thought experiments that would come to fruition in an unprecedented outburst of creativity in 1905. During six months of that year, at age 26, Einstein published four revolutionary papers about physical science, including his special relativity theory about the equivalence of mass and energy.  Einstein’s mass and energy formula, E = MC became the most famous formula in science and mathematics. According to physicist John Rigden, Einstein’s work from 1905 “. . . recognized and, in essence, predicted nuclear energy thirty-four years before the discovery that made it possible. He predicted gravitational red shift at least forty-four years before it was confirmed. Einstein envisioned stimulated emission.” 14

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

According to physicist Albert Forward, “Although Einstein did not invent the laser his work [on stimulated emission of light] laid the foundation” for it. 15

Einstein formulated his general theory of relativity, which he published in 1915 at age 36. According to this theory, light from a faraway star should be pulled toward the Sun by the Sun’s gravitational power. 16 That prediction was confirmed by observations of physicist Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 1919, confirmation that made Einstein world famous and led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921.

Einstein’s thinking was years and decades ahead of other physicists, some of whom went on to expand human understanding of the physical universe by pursuing ideas first propounded by Einstein.

The achievement of Einstein did not invalidate the theories of Isaac Newton. Rather, the insights of Einstein reconciled Newton’s ideas with James Clerk Maxwell’s extremely important theories about electromagnetic phenomena, which are considered the second greatest unification of knowledge in physics, after Newton’s Universal Theory of Gravitation. 17

Jaime Escalante

Jaime Escalante (1930-2010) was a native of Bolivia, where he was born into a poor family. Through intelligence and drive he learned science and mathematics from the better teachers in the schools he attended. Escalante began teaching physics and mathematics at age 21. After 12 years’ teaching in Bolivia, Escalante emigrated to America where at first he had to work in menial jobs, teach himself English and earn a U.S. college degree before he could teach in America.

In 1974 Escalante began teaching at Garfield High School in East Los Angeles. It would be hard to imagine a school with an environment less favorable to academic achievement of any kind than Garfield High School. The school was one of the worst performing in Los Angeles. Most students came from families where no one had earned a high school diploma, much less had any college or university learning. 95% of the students were Hispanic. Spanish was often the language spoken in the home. Shortly before Escalante undertook to teach calculus at Garfield High School, the State of California had been close to suspending the school’s accreditation.

With difficulty Escalante formed a class of 12 Garfield students to study algebra. Next, he proposed to the school administration that he teach calculus, a difficult subject that few Americans study, even in high schools located in affluent communities. Escalante began teaching calculus in 1978.

By dint of hard work, dedication to his students, and perseverance, Escalante inspired his calculus students not only to attend regular classes in calculus, but also to attend supplemental calculus instruction before and after the regular school day and on Saturdays, school holidays and over the summer.

Jaime Escalante

Jaime Escalante

The vast majority of Escalante’s calculus students passed the Advance Placement examination for calculus. Eventually Escalante’s calculus classes at Garfield High School produced more students who passed the calculus Advanced Placement examination than all but a few exceptional schools in affluent parts of the country. In 1987 Garfield High School placed fourth on the list of fifteen top U.S. public high school Advanced Placement calculus programs, ahead of public and private schools in wealthy communities such as Palo Alto, California, Evanston, Illinois, and Scarsdale, New York. 18

Escalante had valuable help from teacher Ben Jimenez, who shared his zeal to help students achieve success in AP calculus, and the full support of Garfield High School’s principal, Henry Gradillas in backing Escalante’s mathematics program. Together they created a disciplined atmosphere where students could work and succeed.

Escalante’s work changed for the better the lives of many of the students who came into his mathematics classes at Garfield High School.

Escalante taught calculus at Garfield High School from 1978 to 1990. He had great success in attracting students into his mathematics classes. Many of his students, went on to college and university studies where generally they did well and then further went on to well-paid jobs and careers after college. 19

According to Wikipedia, “By 1990 . . . Escalante’s math enrichment program had grown to 400 + students. His class sizes had increased to over 50 students in some cases. . . At the height of Escalante’s influence, Garfield graduates were entering the University of Southern California in such great numbers that they outnumbered all the other high schools in the working-class East Los Angeles region combined. Even students who failed the AP [calculus exam] went on to become star students at California State University, Los Angeles in large numbers.” 20

Jaime Escalante’s achievements as a teacher are the subject of the motion picture Stand and Deliver (1988).

The Russians: Sakharov, Solzhenitsyn, Belenko, Avital and Natan Sharansky

From its beginning the Russian revolution of 1917 was a dictatorship of a small group of people, ostensibly seeking to create a communist utopia, who were convinced that they could establish and maintain absolute power only by violence, repression, and terror. Thus, according to dictator Vladimir Lenin the communist rule must be a dictatorship that “. . . is limited by nothing, by no laws, that is restrained by absolutely no rules, that rests directly on coercion.” 21

The Russian communist regime ruled not only Russia but more than a dozen neighboring regions and peoples from Eastern Europe to Central Asia that had been conquered by the predecessor Czarist monarchy of Imperial Russia. In the communist regime that replaced the monarchy, these non-Russian peoples were amalgamated with the Russians under the name Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, known generally as the Soviet Union.

A vast prison camp system known as GULAG was established to terrorize and control the entire population by the power of the regime to incarcerate anybody at any time without proof of wrongdoing. 22

Between 1929 and 1953, 18 million people passed through the prison camps. Of these 18 million, it is estimated that 2.7 million died in prison camp. These prison fatalities were a part of the total of 20 million deaths caused by Soviet repression. 6 million more were exiled to Siberia and Central Asia, where many perished. In 1939, one of every twenty people in the country had been arrested and every other family had someone in prison; 23

The Soviet dictatorship lasted 74 years and took 20 million lives. 24 This was in addition to the grievous bloodshed of World War II in which the Soviet Union suffered 20 million civilian and military fatalities due to complicity of the communist regime in helping Germany to rearm after World War I, and in assisting Hitler’s Nazi Germany militarily and economically right up to the German invasion of Russia and the Ukraine in June 1941. 25

Until 1953, arrest invariably ended up either with immediate execution or long-term imprisonment under harsh conditions that killed many prisoners. Under Joseph Stalin, dictator from 1929 to 1953, no one was safe, not even Stalin’s closest colleagues in the ruling clique. Many of the top communists and top military officers were arrested and killed in what was known as the Great Terror of 1937-1938. In that episode, at least one and a half million people were arrested and summarily executed, sentenced to hard labor, or sent into exile to Siberia and Soviet Central Asia. 26

Only with the death of dictator Joseph Stalin in 1953 did the terror abate. However, a less bloody repression continued for another 38 years through denial of freedom of expression, severe sanctions against the free exercise of religion, prohibition of emigration, imprisonment, loss of employment opportunities, and social pressures organized by agencies of the state.

Stalin’s successors were determined to prevent any one of their number from holding the absolute power of life and death that Stalin had over his closest collaborators. Furthermore, Stalin’s successors in power must have realized that a continuation of Stalinist repression and terror could destroy the country, as it almost did between 1929 and 1943. 27

In ending the unlimited power exercised by Stalin before his death, Stalin’s successors inadvertently diluted the state’s reign of terror by ending the practice of summary execution at the whim of agents of the state.

Before 1953 dissenters were silenced so quickly that their individuality was hidden both within the Soviet Union and to the outside world. After 1953 a few courageous people were able to defy the state without being murdered. That defiance helped bring down the Soviet Union by undermining the legitimacy with which it needed to be regarded by the outside world in order to maintain perpetual power. People outside of Russia began to see the repression as a sign of weakness of the state.

Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989) by his mid-20s had become an important physicist in the Soviet nuclear weapons research program. In 1957 he first expressed concern publicly over the radioactive hazards posed by nuclear test explosions in the atmosphere. In 1968 he published an essay entitled “Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom.” Concurrently, he refused to continue participating in the Russian nuclear weapons development program due to concern about the dangers to humanity from nuclear weapons. In his 1968 essay Sakharov criticized the Soviet state for hypocrisy, corruption, and violation of intellectual freedom, although his criticism was cautious and circumspect, as it had to be to avoid all out confrontation with the state. In the 1970s Sakharov began also to make public protests of human rights violations by the state. Consequently, the state subjected him to fifteen years of vilification, social ostracism, intimidation, threats, and ultimately exile and house arrest, from 1971 to 1986.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsn at time of his award of Nobel Prize for literature.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn at time of  award of the Nobel Prize for literature.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) was arrested for writing a letter to a friend that contained remarks critical of dictator Joseph Stalin. Solzhenitsyn survived eight years in the GULAG (1945-1953). The writings of Solzhenitsyn exposed the brutality and injustice of communist rule, the horror of the Gulag prisons, the arbitrary arrests, executions, and imprisonments, and the misery of the lives of ordinary people under Russian communism.

The writings and activities of Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn became so famous in the West that Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature, and Sakharov was awarded the 1975 Nobel Peace Prize.

GULAG prison camp in Siberia

GULAG prison camp in Siberia

Natan Sharansky (born 1948) is a highly capable mathematician who originally lacked any particular religious bent. He obtained employment in a prestigious Russian scientific institute. As a young man he gravitated toward embracing his Jewish heritage. He studied Hebrew and the Bible. Eventually he requested permission to leave Russia in order to immigrate to Israel. Permission was denied.

Sharansky was a “refusnik,” a title given to Soviet Jews whose application for an exit visa was turned down. They invariably lost their employment and were socially ostracized except by their closest friends and relatives. They could wait in limbo for years hoping and waiting in vain for an exit visa.

Natan Sharansky

Natan Sharansky

After Sharansky persisted in demanding to emigrate, and communicating with Western journalists about his status, he was arrested and charged with offenses punishable by death. The state staged a trial that was a mockery of justice. After trial Sharansky was convicted, sentenced to thirteen years imprisonment, and sent to the gulag.

Sharansky’s wife Avital Sharansky, who had been allowed to emigrate, became domiciled in Israel. Avital worked tirelessly to win her husband’s freedom, gaining audience with the heads of state of the United States, Britain, and France. Through Avital and Western journalists, the injustice of Natan Sharansky’s imprisonment and the state’s denial of freedom to leave Russia became well known in the West. Consequently, due in large part to Avital, in 1987, after nine years imprisonment, Natan Sharansky was released by the Soviet state and allowed to go to the West where he joined his wife Avital in Israel.

Avital Sharansky campaigning for freedom of her husband.

Avital Sharansky campaigning for freedom of her husband.

The plight of the refusniks attracted international attention. In the United States, Congress in 1974 enacted the Jackson-Vanik Amendment to trade legislation, denying favorable trade status to nations ruled by totalitarian regimes. This was done specifically to pressure the Soviet Union into allowing free emigration. Jimmy Carter, candidate for the Presidency in 1976, urged the Soviet Union to allow refusniks to emigrate.

Viktor Belenko (born 1947) was a top Russian jet fighter pilot who became disillusioned with the all-pervasive corruption, brutality, and poverty of life under Russian communism. In 1976, Belenko’s disgust with the communist regime motivated him to risk his life by flying an ultra-secret Russian military aircraft to Japan, in order to turn it over to the United States.

Delivery of that aircraft to the United States provided the U.S. air force and military planners with vital information about the aircraft, specifically that it was a defensive weapon, an interceptor designed to shoot down U.S. surveillance aircraft traveling at very high altitudes. This discovery enabled the U.S. military to save a great deal of time and money that would have been wasted in a futile effort to develop a defense against what they originally thought was an attack fighter-bomber. 28

Viktor Belenko and the MiG 25 aircraft

Viktor Belenko and the MiG 25 aircraft

These individuals—Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Avital and Natan Sharansky, and Belenko—acted alone in ways that had a powerful impact on life in Russia and the Soviet  Union.  The writings and actions of Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov undermined the legitimacy and credibility of the communist dictatorship abroad. The dissent of Sharansky illuminated for the world the injustice of the deprivation of the freedom of people to live where they themselves chose to live. The flight of Belenko dramatized for people in the West the corruption, hypocrisy, lies, and brutality that motivated Belenko to defect to the West.

Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Belenko, and the Sharanskys, each acting alone against a powerful, merciless, implacable state, helped to bring about consciousness among people in the top echelons of the Russian communist hierarchy that they could not long continue to rule as a dictatorship.

Solzhenitsyn was the foremost Russian writer of the 20th century, yet in all his writings he criticized the state for its cruelty, violence, corruption, and immorality.

Andrei Sakharov was one of the most esteemed Russian scientists. As a young man, he played an important role in Soviet development of nuclear weapons. He was honored by the Soviet regime with the highest awards it could bestow on an individual, as well as membership in the economically privileged Nomenklatura. Yet this star of Russian science turned on the state by public criticism that was disseminated widely in the West.

The Soviet state could prevent publication of the writings of Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov in Russia. However, despite all its repressions and restrictions, the Soviet state could not prevent the writings of Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov from reaching the West and being published there, with consequent and considerable negative impact on the Soviet state.

Viktor Belenko was one of the best pilots in the Soviet air force. As a fighter pilot he was highly rewarded with privileges unimaginable by ordinary citizens. Yet he, too, turned on the state, by escaping to the West with a top secret military aircraft. His 1980 biography was widely read in the West.

The bosses of the Soviet dictatorship must have realized that this type of dissent was the tip of an iceberg of discontent with life under Soviet communism. They must have known that other prominent writers sympathized with Solzhenitsyn’s antipathy to the state; that other important scientists shared Sakharov’s views on military issues and intellectual freedom; that many other military pilots would seek to use their aircraft to escape the country if they thought they could get away with it; and that probably most of the approximately two million Soviet Jews would leave the country if they could.

The whole purpose of the apparatus of repression in the Soviet Union was to protect the regime’s monopoly of power by preventing people from voicing their protest against the injustice and hardship of life. Yet there was dissent, and it seemed to be increasing over time, despite all efforts of the state to suppress it.

The bosses of the state knew that the country was falling further and further behind the West economically; that except for the privileged Nomenklatura the standard of living in the Soviet Union was far below that of the West and not improving; and that the virtual enslavement of peasants had caused low productivity in agriculture and a perpetual shortage of food.

The political bosses also knew that even in military affairs, where they allocated so much effort and spending, that Soviet military equipment was hopelessly outclassed by that of the United States, except in terms of weapons, such as tanks, that mattered little in a possible confrontation with the United States. The bosses must have known that military morale was low among ordinary soldiers and sailors due to the brutality of everyday life in the military. The political bosses knew that the people of the Soviet Union knew they were suffering from perpetual shortages of the basic necessities of food and housing and that conditions never got any better.

Consequently, the top people in political power all had long since ceased believing their own propaganda about the virtues and benefits of communism. They knew the people no longer believed the incessant propaganda directed at them. The rulers of the Soviet Union came to believe, albeit reluctantly, that because their rule had become thoroughly discredited they must give up their monopoly of political power after more than 70 years of totalitarian rule. The seemingly unshakable power of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ended when its top people realized they could no longer continue with the status quo.

The gradual breakdown of Communist Party control is illustrated by the poor performance of the state in producing food, and by Jewish demands to emigrate.

The Soviet Union (SU) was chronically short of wheat. This was due to low productivity of the state collective farms, where the peasants were virtual slave labor. Consequently, they had no motivation to work, and were unproductive. This was in a country that included the Ukraine, once known as the bread basket of Europe.

The SU sought to and did buy wheat from American farmers. That became a connecting link between the desire of people like the Sharanskys to emigrate and a subsequent relaxation of Soviet restrictions on emigration. Due to widespread knowledge of the plight of the refusniks in the Soviet Union, there was political motivation in the United States to put economic pressure on the Soviets to allow emigration.

In 1974 the U.S. Congress enacted the Jackson-Vanik Amendment to the U.S. Trade Act of 1974. The amendment was designed to put pressure on the Soviet Union to allow emigration. In order to receive the benefits of normal trade relations with the United States, the SU and other non-market economies (i.e. communist states) were required to comply with free emigration policies.

Jackson-Vanik led to great changes within the Soviet Union. After 1974, the Soviet Union allowed more Jews to emigrate. That was a necessity to the Soviets if they wanted to have the right to buy American grown wheat.

From 1960 to 1970, only 4,000 people left the USSR; in the following decade, the number rose to 250,000. In the 1980s restrictions at first tightened on emigration from the Soviet Union.

Loss of large numbers of Jews to emigration would be a blow to the Soviet Union. First, it would encourage others to demand the right to emigrate, and other ethnic and religious groups did so. Second, although Jews in the Soviet Union were only slightly more than 1% of total population, they were a skilled group. Around one-third had some form of higher education. Jews constituted an inordinately high percentage of members of some specialized fields of activity, including mathematics, medicine, biology, and music.

In 1985, the bosses of the Soviet Union appointed Mikhail Gorbachev as head of state, knowing he intended to make liberalizing changes. The Soviet bosses conceded implicitly that some changes were needed if they were to retain control of the country. After Mikhail Gorbachev became head of state in 1985, the Soviet Union allowed unlimited Jewish emigration. Consequently there was a mass emigration of Russians of Jewish extraction. This was one of the significant developments in the years 1985 to 1989 that led to the subsequent fall of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 29

SOURCE NOTE: There is a vast literature on the problems of Soviet life that prompted dissent. To find sources one need only do an internet search using the three words Dissent, Soviet, and books.

Thomas Paine

The return of Halley’s Comet in 1758 resulted in enormous prestige to science and the work of Newton. Thomas Paine (1737-1809) came of age in the intellectual ferment of London of the late 1750s, where he was a serious student of Newtonian science.  Shortly after Paine came to America, in 1774, he wrote a 46-page pamphlet entitled Common Sense, first published on January 10, 1776.

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Thomas Paine

In Common Sense Paine argued not only that the American colonies of Britain should separate from Britain, but also that America should reject rule by monarchy and develop a new form of government based on the principle of individual self rule. The near complete end of monarchy in human society since Paine’s Common Sense is strong evidence that this development is due to Thomas Paine and his essay. Accordingly, Common Sense appears to be the most influential essay in the history of America, and one of the most influential in world history.

The pamphlet was an immediate sensation. First published in January 1776, by the end of that year between 150,000 and 250,000 copies had been sold at a time when America’s population was 3 million—equivalent to a first-year sale of around 20 million copies in the second decade of the 21st century in America.

Common Sense caused a true revolution in attitudes in America. Before its publication almost all Americans opposed separation from Britain and eschewed disloyalty to the British monarchy, notwithstanding the armed conflict with Britain that had been going on since April 1775. After the publication of Common Sense pro-independence and anti-monarchy sentiment grew rapidly in America. John Adams, the second President of the United States of America said “History is to ascribe the American Revolution to Thomas Paine.” 30

The ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence are the ideas of Common Sense. The two have so much in common that some historians have claimed that either Paine was the secret author of the Declaration of Independence or that his friend Thomas Jefferson copied him so thoroughly that it amounted to the same thing. 31

A perceptive observer, John W. Deming pointed out that in Paine’s essay entitled “African Slavery in America,” certain passages mirror almost word for word the original paragraph denouncing and abjuring slavery in America in the Declaration of Independence. 32

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) is immortalized by his essay Civil Disobedience (1849) that carried the sentiments of Paine’s Common Sense forward—arguing that the people had as much right to disobey the commands of American political democracy as they did to disobey the commands of the British monarch.

In July 1846 Thoreau was arrested and jailed for refusal to pay six years’ delinquent poll taxes. He chose not to pay the tax because he could not in good conscience pay tax to a political state that maintained slavery and waged a war of aggression, the Mexican-American War. In 1848 Thoreau gave a lecture on this subject that he entitled “The Rights and Duties of the Individual in Relation to Government.”

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau

In 1849 Thoreau wrote on this subject in an essay entitled “Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience).” The essay has become famous internationally under the title Civil Disobedience. In the essay he argues that individuals should not allow governments, even popularly elected, democratic governments, to overrule or atrophy their conscience; and that individuals have a duty to avoid acquiescence in immoral acts of the state, acquiescence that would make them the agents of injustice.

The actions of Russian dissidents under communism described hereinabove are examples of individuals espousing and acting on the principle that Thoreau eloquently stated a century earlier. So was the action of American popular singer Joan Baez (born 1941) in refusing to pay that part of the tax on her income that she viewed as going to finance the war in Vietnam.

In British-ruled India, sixty years after Thoreau’s essay about civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. He posited that if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule would collapse. He was right. 33

In the United States, Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) was another follower of Thoreau’s idea of civil disobedience. King advocated non-violent refusal to obey political laws that denied the civil liberties of black Americans. By his moral leadership King became influential in ending legalized discrimination against blacks in statutory law in the United States.

Individual achievement and the transition to non-coercive protection of persons and property

Andrew Galambos espoused the view that lone individuals would lead the way towards greater freedom for humanity; they would do so by innovating and developing those ideas, services, products, and companies that would provide for human security; and that security is indispensable to human happiness.

Security products and services have been created through a spontaneous, unplanned evolutionary process that has been developing over the past four centuries. This process became evident with the inception of the insurance industry in 17th century England and Holland. For what is the insurance industry but a spontaneous human cultural development to provide security?

This book demonstrates that political states do not provide human security, but only the false simulacrum of security. Rather than security, political states cause discord and war, and attack and plunder the people they pretend to protect.

It appears to be inevitable that eventually the intellectual, ideological, and entrepreneurial leaders of human society, and much of the rest of society, will recognize the futility of politics and political states. As that recognition deepens and spreads, of necessity people will look to the free market place for those companies that provide real human security on a proprietary and non-coercive basis.

 

 

Notes:

  1. See McCullough, David, The Wright Brothers (2015), chapter three
  2. The TV show was entitled Emergency! See http://www.nbc.com/classic-tv/emergency?nbc=1
  3. See U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Inflation Calculator, http://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm
  4. See REACH Air Medical Services, REACH History, http://reachair.com/about-us/history/
  5. http://bettychinn.org/
  6. See Hoyle, Fred, Astronomy (1962), pages 98-109
  7. Entitled Sidereus Nuncius in the original Latin
  8. Entitled Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo in the original Italian
  9. Quoted from Bronowski, J., The Ascent of Man (1973), page 211
  10. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) developed the calculus independently of Newton
  11. In 1684 Newton sent a brief exposition of his ideas to the Royal Society in London.
  12. According to Wikipedia, The President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence.
  13. Wikipedia, Edmond Halley
  14. Quoted from Rigden, John S. Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness (2005), page vii.
  15. Quoted from “Einstein’s Legacy, by Albert L. Forward, http://laserstars.org/history/einstein.html
  16. “Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity,” by Nola Taylor Redd, http://www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html
  17. Wikipedia, James Clerk Maxwell, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell
  18. Matthews, Jay, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America (1988), pages 300-304 and Appendix 2
  19. Matthews, Jay, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America (1988), pages 294-305.
  20. Wikipedia, Jaime Escalante
  21. Pipes, Richard, Communism: A History (2001), chapter 2, “Leninism,” pages 39-48; Lenin quotation at page 39
  22. GULAG is the acronym for the Russian title Chief Directorate of Camps. Wikipedia, Gulag
  23. Hosford, David, Pamela Kurchin, and Thomas Lamont, Gulag: Soviet Prison Camps and Their Legacy [undated], Joint Project of the U.S. National Park Service and the Harvard University Center for Russian, East European and Central Asian Studies, pages 4-5, http://gulaghistory.org/nps/downloads/gulag-curriculum.pdf; and Applebaum, Anne, Gulag: A History, pages 582-584 (2003)
  24. Courtois, Stéphane, Nicolas Werth, et al, The Black Book of Communism (1999)
  25. See discussion of Russia and Germany in chapter 25 hereof, entitled National Defense
  26. Pipes, Richard, Communism (2001), page 64
  27. Repression had severely weakened Russia’s ability to resist and defeat the invasion of Nazi German armies from 1941 to 1943
  28. Belenko’s story is told in a biography, MiG Pilot: The Final Escape of Lieutenant Belenko (1980) by John Barron; in an interview of Belenko twenty years after his flight, at http://www.fullcontext.info/people/belenko.htm ; and in “The Pilot Who Stole a Secret Soviet fighter jet, ” by Stephen Dowling, BBC, http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160905-the-pilot-who-stole-a-secret-soviet-fighter-jet
  29. The phenomenon of the causes of the collapse of the seemingly all-powerful Soviet Union has been analyzed by several knowledgeable observers, for example, eminent historians Richard Pipes of Harvard University (see above) and John Lewis Gaddis of Yale University, in his book The Cold War (2005).
  30. Quoted in Nelson, Craig, Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution and the Birth of Modern Nations (2006), page 93
  31. Nelson, Craig, Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution and the Birth of Modern Nations (2006), page 80-98
  32. Paine’s essay in which he urges emancipation of enslaved blacks in America is available at the following link: http://www.constitution.org/tp/afri.htm.  The denunciation of slavery deleted from the first draft of the Declaration of Independence is reproduced at The Deleted Passage of the Declaration of Independence (1776),  http://www.blackpast.org/primary/declaration-independence-and-debate-over-slavery#sthash.Nw94WJtf.dpuf
  33. That message was the subject of a book by Gandhi that became famous: Hind Swaraj (1909)

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