10,000 BCSCIENCE & ART: End of Pleistocene Ice age; advent of agriculture.
POLITICS: Advent of tribal chief and witch doctor
3500 BCSCIENCE & ART: Invention of writing.
POLITICS: Tribal chief and witch doctor coalesce, leading to monarchy.
3000 BCSCIENCE & ART: Invention of wheel. POLITICS: Monarchy continues.
2000 BCMaya civilization begins and flourishes for centuries in present day southern Mexico and Central America. Especially from 250 to 900 CE, the Mayan people formed a highly advanced civilization which included developments in art, mathematics, calendrics, and architecture (including flat-topped pyramids, temples, and towers that are still in existence today). The Mayans were probably the first people in the western hemisphere to develop a writing system. Their 365-day calendar is considered by many experts to be even more precise than the 365-day Gregorian calendar in use today.
551 – 479 BCChinese philosopher Confucius developed what has been called "The Silver Rule" which states: "What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others." This is a fundamental principle of morality that is also found in a variety of other religious and philosophical texts, including the Hebrew bible.
550-250 BCSCIENCE & ART: Greek civilization - Pythagoras, Socrates, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Archimedes, Euclid, Aristarchus. POLITICS: Democracy in Athens, oligarchy in Sparta; external wars of Athens with Persia and Troy, frequent costly and bloody cicvil wars within Greece.
270 BCSCIENCE & ART: Aristarchus of Samos articulates the first heliocentric hypothesis (sun at center of universe). POLITICS: Island city-state of Samos variously part of of Athens ruled by Egyptians, Persians or Romans.
105 CESCIENCE & ART: Paper invented in Ancient China and spread to the west via the Silk Road. POLITICS: Han Dynasty.
509 BC – 476 CESCIENCE & ART: Roman architecture including the arch, vault and dome, aqueduct; poet Virgil. POLITICS: Roman Republic and starting in 27 BC the Roman Empire which was an autocratic dictatorship.
380 CEPOLITICS: Christianity becomes state religion of Roman Empire.
450 CESCIENCE & ART: Zero first used in mathematics in India. POLITICS: Monarchy continues.
900-1500POLITICS: Feudalism in Europe from 900 to 1500 and in Japan from 1200-1900.
1076-1270POLITICS: Crusades: Seven wars between Christians and Muslims over control of Jerusalem.
1140-1500SCIENCE & ART: The Gothic style of art and architecture developed in Europe. POLITICS: Feudalism continues.
1291 to presentPOLITICS: Swiss Confederation begins in 1291, grows and expands to present Switzerland over time; peaceful co-existence and religious tolerance among Switzerland's varied German-, French-, and Italian-speaking population for the past seven centuries.
1300-1600SCIENCE & ART: Renaissance in Italy which led to the rediscovery of art and science of ancient Greece and the rebirth of creativity in Europe. POLITICS: City-states in Milan, Venice, and Florence; Rule by Papacy in Rome; wars between the city states and against invading armies of foreign states.
1337-1453POLITICS: Hundred Years War between England and France.
1413SCIENCE & ART: Italian artist Brunelleschi introduces perspective in painting. POLITICS: Florentine city-state and Rome under the Papacy.
1444POLITICS: First slaves brought to Portugal from Mauritania in Africa.
1450SCIENCE & ART: Invention of modern printing with movable type and printing press by Johannes Gutenberg generates rise in literacy. POLITICS: Mainz, Germany, Gutenberg's domicile, under church rule.
1464-1550SCIENCE & ART: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Cellini become exemplary artists of the Italian high renaissance. POLITICS: City-states in Milan, Venice, Florence, then northern & central Italy under foreign rule.
1483-1533SCIENCE & ART: Inca civilization flourishes. Major achievements in the arts and sciences including advances in architecture, measures, calendrics and the development of wind instruments. POLITICS: Inca civilization grows through conquest (often violent); human sacrifices to appease gods.
1507-1543SCIENCE & ART: Polish scholar and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) uses scientific method to develop propositions of the triple motion of earth, that it revolves and tilts on its axis while revolving around the sun. POLITICS: Parliamentary government and monarchy in Copernicus’ native Poland.
1517-1555POLITICS: Protestant reformation, led in large part by Martin Luther, breaks away from Roman Catholic Church.
1519-1522SCIENCE & ART: Voyage of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, first to circumnavigate the globe, corroborates the idea that planet earth is round and revolves on its axis once a day. POLITICS: Monarchy in Portugal and Spain.
1524-1648POLITICS: Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants throughout Europe.
1543SCIENCE & ART: Waiting until the year of his death Copernicus publishes heliocentric hypothesis, showing Earth revolves around the sun. POLITICS: Parliamentary government in Copernicus’ native Poland.
1550SCIENCE & ART: Violin developed in Italy. POLITICS: Brescia, Italy, Republic of Venice.
1561-1626ART & SCIENCE: Francis Bacon, English scientist, philosopher, and author. His essays served to establish an inductive method for scientific inquiry called the scientific method.
1583-1585SCIENCE & ART: Giordano Bruno develops cosmological hypothesis stating that sun is a star in an infinite universe. POLITICS: Roman Catholic Church.
1600POLITICS: Giordano Bruno convicted of heresy and burned alive by Catholic Inquisition.
1584-1613SCIENCE & ART: Galileo develops scientific method of experiment and observation, uses telescope for observation of moon, sun and planets, advocates Copernican hypothesis. POLITICS: Republic of Venice.
1609-1619SCIENCE & ART: Johannes Kepler publishes laws of planetary motion. POLITICS: Germany under Holy Roman Empire.
1636POLITICS: Galileo convicted of heresy by Catholic Inquisition, house arrest imposed as life sentence.
1665-1704SCIENCE & ART: Isaac Newton: laws of motion, gravitation, optics, mathematics: invention of calculus (also independently invented by Leibniz). POLITICS: England, monarchy, with beginning of parliamentary democracy in 1688.
1687SCIENCE & ART: Publication of most important & influential book in history of science, Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica.
POLITICS: Monarchy under English King Charles II.
1698-1709SCIENCE & ART: Invention of piano by Bartolomeo Cristofori.
POLITICS: Florence as a principality under rule of Medici family.
1759SCIENCE & ART: Emilie du Chatelet (Mathematician, physicist, and author) translates Newton's Principia Mathematica from Latin into French. Her work remains the standard French translation in the 21st century.
1708-1827SCIENCE & ART: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (who is depicted above), Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven in music. POLITICS: City-states, principalities, monarchy.
1754 –1763POLITICS: Worldwide war in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and Spain on one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other. The image above depicts a moment in the French Indian War when William Johnson of the British army helped save the life of a wounded French officer.
1758SCIENCE & ART: Predicted return of Halley’s Comet validates Newton’s gravitation theory. POLITICS: Monarchy and parliamentary democracy in England.
1759-1797Mary Wollstonecraft, English philosopher and women's rights activist who is best known for her work entitled "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" (1792).
1760-1830SCIENCE & ART: Industrial revolution begins in England. POLITICS: Parliament as central authority in England with reduced powers of monarch.
1765SCIENCE & ART: Invention of steam engine by James Watt in England. POLITICS: English parliament shares power with monarch.
1776SCIENCE & ART: Thomas Paine, Common Sense: invalidates monarchy; publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations and first volume of Edward Gibbons’ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. POLITICS: Colonial America under British rule; Monarchy and parliamentary democracy in England.
1776-1789POLITICS: American War for Independence from England; establishment of political democracy in the United States of America.
1789-1815POLITICS: French Revolution ends monarchy in France, followed by Reign of Terror then Napoleon as dictator and finally Emperor of France; Napoleonic Wars to establish French empire.
1796SCIENCE & ART: Edward Jenner innovates immunization (smallpox).
1804-1825SCIENCE & ART: Invention and introduction of first steam powered railroad locomotive in England. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
1808-1827SCIENCE & ART: John Dalton elucidates the atomic theory of matter. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
1811-1896SCIENCE & ART: Harriett Beecher Stowe advanced abolition of slavery in America through her best-selling novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852).
1816-1830POLITICS: “War is a continuation of politics by other means to compel our adversaries to submit to our will.”—Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian military theorist.
1824SCIENCE & ART: Sadi Carnot, theory of ideal heat engine (internal combustion), initiates and lays foundation for physical science of thermodynamics. POLITICS: Monarchy in France.
1827-1839SCIENCE & ART: Invention of photography by Louis Daguerre in France. POLITICS: Monarchy in France.
1831SCIENCE & ART: Michael Faraday discovery of electromagnetic induction, basis for subsequent technologies using electricity. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
1837SCIENCE & ART: Invention of telegraph by Samuel F.B. Morse. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
1846-1848POLITICS: War between U.S. and Mexico - U.S. first war of imperialism.
1846SCIENCE & ART: Ether anesthesia introduced for surgery by William Morton. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
1848POLITICS: Political revolutions across continental Europe.
1820-1910SCIENCE & ART: Florence Nightingale develops the profession of nursing.
1853-1856POLITICS: Crimean War between Russia, France, England, etc.
1858-1859SCIENCE & ART: Alfred Russell Wallace and Charles Darwin independently develop concept of biological evolution. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
1861-1862SCIENCE & ART: Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, James Clerk Maxwell, basis for radio, television, transmission of electricity, wireless communication. POLITICS: Scotland under English Parliamentary democracy.
1861-1865POLITICS: Civil War in America, 750,000 military fatalities out of a population of 30 million.
1865SCIENCE & ART: Foundation of genetics by German scientist and friar Gregor Mendel. POLITICS: Monarchy in Vienna, Austria.
1875-1879SCIENCE & ART: Invention of sound recording (Thomas Edison), first practical electric light (Edison) and telephone (Elisha Gray). POLITICS: Democracy in America.
1880’sSCIENCE & ART: Jazz music develops in America. Scott Joplin develops "ragtime." Invention of alternating current electrical energy transmission by Nikola Tesla. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
1889SCIENCE & ART: Daimler and Benz invent automobile powered by internal combustion engine. POLITICS: Monarchy/oligarchy, German Empire.
1893SCIENCE & ART: Wireless radio transmission first demonstrated by Nikola Tesla. POLITICS: United States political democracy.
1898POLITICS: War between the U.S. and Spain - second imperialistic war of the U.S.
1867-1934SCIENCE & ART: Marie Curie pioneered research in radioactivity, Noble Prize winner in both physics and chemistry, first woman to win the Nobel Prize.
1988Gertrude Elion (1918-1999), American biochemist and pharmacologist, wins the Nobel Prize for Medicine along with George H. Hitchings and James Black. Her work and research led to the development of new drugs to treat a variety of diseases.
20th Century – Positive DevelopmentsSCIENCE & ART: Positive developments. Physics - Einstein's relativity theory; quantum physics; space exploration and satellite communications. Inventions - the Wright brothers invent the airplane (1903); television, wireless telephony, digital computers, the Internet, transistor microchips and integrated circuits, microwave cooking; nuclear power for electricity generation. Medicine - penicillin, x-ray, MRI, elimination of infantile paralysis; psychoanalysis, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery.
20th Century – Negative DevelopmentsScience used for destructive purposes, e.g., rocket missiles derived from Newton’s laws of motion, gravitation and from laws of thermodynamics; atomic bombs derived from Einstein’s laws of relativity and physical science laws of atomic structure. 165 wars with 180 million total deaths and another 100 million deaths by political and civil repression and genocide in 14 countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. Virtual monarchy appeared under new names in fascist Germany from 1933 to 1945 and communist Russia from 1918 to 1953, where heads of state ruled with more absolute, unchecked and brutal power than the kings of the past.