Science & Art: End of Pleistocene Ice age; advent of agriculture
Politics: Advent of tribal chief and witch doctor More
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of writing. POLITICS: Tribal chief and witch doctor coalesce, leading to monarchy.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of wheel. POLITICS: Monarchy continues.
Maya civilization begins and flourishes for centuries in present day southern Mexico and Central America. Especially from 250 to 900 CE, the Mayan people formed a highly advanced civilization which included developments in art, mathematics, calendrics, and architecture (including flat-topped pyramids, temples, and … More
Chinese philosopher Confucius developed what has been called “The Silver Rule” which states: “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.” This is a fundamental principle of morality that is also found in a variety of other religious and … More
SCIENCE & ART: Greek civilization – Pythagoras, Socrates, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Archimedes, Euclid, Aristarchus. POLITICS: Democracy in Athens, oligarchy in Sparta; external wars of Athens with Persia and Troy, frequent costly and bloody cicvil wars within Greece.
SCIENCE & ART: Aristarchus of Samos articulates the first heliocentric hypothesis (sun at center of universe). POLITICS: Island city-state of Samos variously part of of Athens ruled by Egyptians, Persians or Romans.
SCIENCE & ART: Paper invented in Ancient China and spread to the west via the Silk Road. POLITICS: Han Dynasty.
SCIENCE & ART: Roman architecture including the arch, vault and dome, aqueduct; poet Virgil. POLITICS: Roman Republic and starting in 27 BC the Roman Empire which was an autocratic dictatorship.
POLITICS: Christianity becomes state religion of Roman Empire.
SCIENCE & ART: Zero first used in mathematics in India. POLITICS: Monarchy continues.
POLITICS: Feudalism in Europe from 900 to 1500 and in Japan from 1200-1900.
POLITICS: Crusades: Seven wars between Christians and Muslims over control of Jerusalem.
SCIENCE & ART: The Gothic style of art and architecture developed in Europe. POLITICS: Feudalism continues.
POLITICS: Swiss Confederation begins in 1291, grows and expands to present Switzerland over time; peaceful co-existence and religious tolerance among Switzerland’s varied German-, French-, and Italian-speaking population for the past seven centuries.
SCIENCE & ART: Renaissance in Italy which led to the rediscovery of art and science of ancient Greece and the rebirth of creativity in Europe. POLITICS: City-states in Milan, Venice, and Florence; Rule by Papacy in Rome; wars between the … More
POLITICS: Hundred Years War between England and France.
SCIENCE & ART: Italian artist Brunelleschi introduces perspective in painting. POLITICS: Florentine city-state and Rome under the Papacy.
POLITICS: First slaves brought to Portugal from Mauritania in Africa.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of modern printing with movable type and printing press by Johannes Gutenberg generates rise in literacy. POLITICS: Mainz, Germany, Gutenberg’s domicile, under church rule.
SCIENCE & ART: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Cellini become exemplary artists of the Italian high renaissance. POLITICS: City-states in Milan, Venice, Florence, then northern & central Italy under foreign rule.
SCIENCE & ART: Inca civilization flourishes. Major achievements in the arts and sciences including advances in architecture, measures, calendrics and the development of wind instruments. POLITICS: Inca civilization grows through conquest (often violent); human sacrifices to appease gods.
SCIENCE & ART: Polish scholar and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) uses scientific method to develop propositions of the triple motion of earth, that it revolves and tilts on its axis while revolving around the sun. POLITICS: Parliamentary government and monarchy in … More
SCIENCE & ART: Voyage of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, first to circumnavigate the globe, corroborates the idea that planet earth is round and revolves on its axis once a day. POLITICS: Monarchy in Portugal and Spain.
POLITICS: Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants throughout Europe.
SCIENCE & ART: Waiting until the year of his death Copernicus publishes heliocentric hypothesis, showing Earth revolves around the sun. POLITICS: Parliamentary government in Copernicus’ native Poland.
SCIENCE & ART: Violin developed in Italy. POLITICS: Brescia, Italy, Republic of Venice.
ART & SCIENCE: Francis Bacon, English scientist, philosopher, and author. His essays served to establish an inductive method for scientific inquiry called the scientific method.
SCIENCE & ART: Giordano Bruno develops cosmological hypothesis stating that sun is a star in an infinite universe. POLITICS: Roman Catholic Church.
POLITICS: Giordano Bruno convicted of heresy and burned alive by Catholic Inquisition.
SCIENCE & ART: Galileo develops scientific method of experiment and observation, uses telescope for observation of moon, sun and planets, advocates Copernican hypothesis. POLITICS: Republic of Venice.
SCIENCE & ART: Johannes Kepler publishes laws of planetary motion. POLITICS: Germany under Holy Roman Empire.
POLITICS: Galileo convicted of heresy by Catholic Inquisition, house arrest imposed as life sentence.
SCIENCE & ART: Isaac Newton: laws of motion, gravitation, optics, mathematics: invention of calculus (also independently invented by Leibniz). POLITICS: England, monarchy, with beginning of parliamentary democracy in 1688.
SCIENCE & ART: Publication of most important & influential book in history of science, Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica. POLITICS: Monarchy under English King Charles II.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of piano by Bartolomeo Cristofori. POLITICS: Florence as a principality under rule of Medici family.
SCIENCE & ART: Emilie du Chatelet (Mathematician, physicist, and author) translates Newton’s Principia Mathematica from Latin into French. Her work remains the standard French translation in the 21st century.
SCIENCE & ART: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (who is depicted above), Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven in music. POLITICS: City-states, principalities, monarchy.